Translation (Homo sapiens)
Protein synthesis is accomplished through the process of translation of an mRNA sequence into a polypeptide chain. This process can be divided into three distinct stages: initiation, elongation and termination. During the initiation phase, the two subunits of the ribosome are brought together to the translation start site on the mRNA where the polypeptide chain is to begin. Extension of the polypeptide chain occurs when a specific aminoacyl-tRNA, as determined by the template mRNA, binds an elongating ribosome. The protein chain is released from the ribosome when any one of three stop codons in the relevant reading frame on the mRNA is reached. Individual reactions at each one of these stages are catalyzed by a number of initiation, elongation and release factors, respectively.