Signal amplification (Homo sapiens)
In the initial response to injury, platelets adhere to damaged blood vessels, responding to the exposure of collagen from the vascular epithelium. Once adhered they degranulate, releasing stored secondary agents such as ADP and ATP, and synthesized thromboxane A2. These amplify the response, activating and recruiting further platelets to the area and promoting platelet aggregation. Adenosine nucleotides secreted following platelet activation signal through P2 purinergic receptors on the platelet membrane. ADP activates P2Y1 and P2Y12 while ATP activates the ionotropic P2X1 receptor (Kunapuli et al. 2003). Activation of these receptors initiates a complex signaling cascade that ultimately results in platelet activation and thrombus formation (Kahner et al. 2006). ADP stimulation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 involves signaling via both the alpha and gamma:beta components of the heterotrimeric G-protein (Hirsch et al. 2001, 2006).
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Thromboxane A2: G-protein G13 (active)
|ADP:P2Y purinoceptor 1||Complex||REACT_21127 (Reactome)|